Giving Law Officers Validated Effectiveness

John G. Peters, Jr., Ph.D., and Darrell L. Ross, Ph.D.

©2023. A.R.R.

The G.L.O.V.E. is a conductive distraction and de-escalation device integrated into a glove which enables users to quickly bring individuals into compliance or restrain them from further violence.

Following a 2019 incident, two law enforcement officers were charged with manslaughter by their state’s Attorney General’s office after an inmate suddenly died. The officers were attempting to gain control of the inmate after he had “turtled” (placed both arms under his chest). Surveillance video footage showed several officers struggling to pull both arms from under him while another officer forcefully propelled his knee into the inmate’s right side at least three times. After being on administrative leave for more than 1.5 years, the two officers were relieved when a jury returned a “not guilty” verdict in 2022.

The optics of seeing an officer repeatedly and forcefully driving a knee into the side of a person who is actively resisting may be seen as excessive force by jurors. Admittedly, using force is not pretty to watch, either in person or on video footage. To improve the optics and the efficacy of using physical force, one low-level and proven de-escalation force option is the G.L.O.V.E. from Compliant Technologies. G.L.O.V.E. is an acronym for Generated Low Output Voltage Emitter. It is easy to use, regardless of your age, strength or size, and has proven its effectiveness with over 3000 real-world applications by Law Enforcement Officers (LEOs).


The approximate 3000 uses were actual street or jail utilizations, not conducted in a controlled laboratory. When training uses are added, the sum increases to approximately 15,000. Check out the “Use Cases” testimonials on Compliant Technologies. To date, approximately 400 law enforcement agencies have adopted the G.L.O.V.E. in 36 states and nine countries, with no reported LEO injuries.

Per Jeff Niklaus, founder of Compliant Technologies, LEO feedback consistently confirms that subject “resistance to compliance” time is approximately three seconds following G.L.O.V.E. application. Several LEOs who volunteered to see if they could defeat the G.L.O.V.E during the 2023 SHOT Show confirmed the resistance to compliance statistic. View this short video showing a volunteer “turtling” on the mat and who may have beaten the average resistance to compliance. Consider the favorable use-of-force optics when using the G.L.O.V.E. on a turtling person, compared to thrusting a knee into the side of a resisting inmate or demonstrator.

Medical and Other Scientific Research

In 2019, inventor Zhiyong Jiang and Dorin Panescu, Ph.D. compared the G.L.O.V.E device with relevant electrical compliance safety and efficacy standards. They found the G.L.O.V.E. follows these relevant international standards, such as UL 69, IEC 60335-7-26, IEC 60479-1 and -2, and ANSI/CPLSO-17. Jiang and Panescu reported more than 550 volunteers had been exposed to the G.L.O.V.E. at the time of their research with no reported physical or cardiovascular injuries. Today, that number is significantly higher.

Other significant safety issues to consider are no probe penetration injuries; no collateral damage because most people can break their fall during a takedown; no arcing sounds; no Neuro Peropheral Interference (NPI); no potential weapon confusion (think TASER® ECW and handgun); gloved hands are able to use handcuffs, baton, firearm, or another force option; and low, positive optics.

Also, the G.L.O.V.E. cannot be “disarmed” from the LEOs hands and the  

G.L.O.V.E. does not have the significant risks associated with a TASER (e.g., probe injuries and rare, but possible, cardiac issues). 

Current Scientific Study 

The authors of this article are conducting a prospective, scientific study which will analyze submitted data by several agencies which have adopted the G.L.O.V.E. These agencies have agreed to describe G.L.O.V.E. applications using a customized “Response to Resistance Data Collection Form.” Data collection began on July 1, 2022, and ends on July 1, 2023. The data will be statistically analyzed and then aggregately reported (look for a follow-up article in a future edition of Police and Security News).

The form will capture “clinical” data about G.L.O.V.E. usage including environmental factors, incident characteristics, subject characteristics, subject/inmate injuries, officer injuries, and other force measures after the subject was grounded.

Compliant Technologies

The founder and CEO of Compliant Technologies, Jeff Niklaus, retired from the United States Army in 2008 as a CW4 Blackhawk helicopter pilot where he served as an instructor pilot, instrument flight examiner and standardization officer. Jeff still has a passion for service and a keen desire to help the men and women in public safety by providing a low-level force option.

“I wanted to provide a force option multiplier that [public safety] leadership can back with low optics [which] will protect officers, and is safe and effective at the same time,” said Niklaus. “I believe this is the most humane tool I can put on the belts and in the hands of law enforcement officers.” Unlike many “police” defensive products, the G.L.O.V.E. is not sold to the general public. A man of faith and principle, Niklaus is quick to “give God the credit” for any G.L.O.V.E. success.

Invisible De-escalation Partner: G.L.O.V.E. Characteristics

 Through proper training and application, the G.L.O.V.E. is a low-level force option and serves as an “invisible de-escalation” tool which enhances the LEO’s ability to help control a resisting person safely and quickly. Because of its unique design and flexibility, the G.L.O.V.E. allows officers to transition to these force options: use empty-handed control tactics; use and apply handcuffs; and obtain and effectively use an impact tool, firearm or other force option while wearing them.

G.L.O.V.E. Construction and Characteristics

The structure of the G.L.O.V.E. is similar to other commercially manufactured gloves. These include strips of leather, called fourchettes which make the sides of the fingers. There is a trank which comprises the palm and back side of the hand. There are VELCRO® strips at the cuff (glove opening) to secure it to the wrists.

The G.L.O.V.E. is activated by pressing on the power switch embedded inside the trank (below the thumb) for one second. (This feature prevents activation by “brushing” against the person or an object.) De-activation requires a three second press on the power switch, designed to prevent accidental de-activation during a struggle.

Embedded on the palm side of the G.L.O.V.E. are two sets of contact electrodes which are separated and insulated from one another. They are also separated from the wearer. One set of these conductive fabric electrodes is located in the palm area and base of the thumb, with the other set located at the base of the fingers. Jang and Panescu established that the pulse output from the electrodes was “strong enough to cause significant muscular contractions resulting in neuromuscular interference, not incapacitation.”

Constructed of high-grade leather, together with man-made materials, the G.L.O.V.E. is available in eight models. The CT-F2P (patrol) G.L.O.V.E., for example, comes in black, yellow or orange (training) colors, with the size of some models ranging from small, medium, large, extra-large, and double extra-large. They weigh between nine and 23 ounces (260-750 grams) depending upon the model and size.

Electrical Characteristics

The G.L.O.V.E. is not a TASER Electronic Control Weapon (ECW); it’s not a “stun gun”; and it is not classified as a firearm (think TASER 10 with its gunpowder-based propulsion system). Its primary role is to serve as persuasive distraction and a de-escalation tool. It can be easily worn and used to de-escalate a situation or to supplement an LEO’s defensive tactics and/or escort techniques. It does not shoot probes and is primarily used after making physical contact. The low-level electrical discharge becomes a force multiplier when using redirection techniques, escorting people or helping to change a resisting opponent’s mind who is hiding one of both hands or refuses to walk. The LEO controls the discharge intensity. Light pressure against a person’s body produces an unpleasant feeling, whereas firm pressure intensifies the electrical discharge. The G.L.O.V.E. will not electrocute; is within the “no fibrillation region” per the IEC 60479-2 standard; and its microprocessor records device activations which can be downloaded for review, for investigative purposes and for storage. In short, the G.L.O.V.E. enables a smaller and/or weaker LEO (compared to the opponent) to help capture and control a resisting person.

The G.L.O.V.E. is safe to use in the rain and will not cause low-grade burns to the skin like traditional stun guns or ECWs. The electrical shock will not penetrate clothing, hair, metal, or fur and doesn’t negatively affect individuals with implanted defibrillators or pacemakers. When grabbing a subject, other officers who also grab the individual can stay focused on task without worrying about secondary electrical energy, unlike some other ECWs.

Competency-based Training and Testing

Currently, there are three levels of G.L.O.V.E. competency-based classroom and hands-on training: User-level (three to four hours); Instructor (approximately six hours); and Master Instructor (three days). Exact training hours vary depending upon class size. Competency-based training and testing are required before permitting LEOs to use the G.L.O.V.E.

E-Band Restrictors, E-Vest and Shields

The G.L.O.V.E. is one component of Compliant Technologies’ CD3 family of electronic devices, where CD3 is shorthand for a conductive, distraction and de-escalation device. Compliant Technologies’ E-Vest and E-Band use the same technology as the G.L.O.V.E. and are devices for prisoner transport, medical visits or use on prisoners in a courtroom setting.

Additionally, Shield models are available which can be used in riots, demonstrations and similar events to help protect both demonstrators and LEOs. The Shields come in a variety of models, shapes, sizes, and capabilities.


The G.L.O.V.E. is not only versatile, but, like other gloves, it can also be readily accessible as the officer can carry them in field pants or in a vest. In a confinement facility, the G.L.O.V.E. may be stored with other devices and made accessible in the booking area, and prior to their application during a forced cell extraction or cell insertion.

In today’s litigious society, public safety administrators and governmental entities are actively seeking technology which will reduce lawsuits alleging their LEOs using excessive force. However, prior to adopting “new” technology, the focus is on cost, risk management and officer safety. Unlike many new public safety technologies, the G.L.O.V.E. has been scientifically and practically evaluated, with more scientific study ongoing. The G.L.O.V.E. has proven its safety and effectiveness in helping to control actively resisting subjects and in reducing LEO injuries. Imagine what might not have happened if the two LEOs who were charged with manslaughter (mentioned at the beginning of this article) had been utilizing the G.L.O.V.E.

John G. Peters, Jr., Ph.D. is a frequent contributor to Police and Security News. A former police administrator, deputy sheriff and police officer, he serves as president of the internationally recognized training firm, Institute for the Prevention of In-Custody Deaths, Inc., and as Executive Director of the Americans for Effective Law Enforcement, Inc. A judicially qualified expert witness, he has testified in international, federal and state courts.

Darrell L. Ross, Ph.D. is the Chair of the Department of Sociology, Anthropology and Criminal Justice at Valdosta State University and is the Director for the Center for Applied Social Sciences. A former corrections officer, Dr. Ross has been retained as an expert witness in over 1,000 cases providing testimony in 31 states on behalf of police, correctional and private security agencies.

Electrical Characteristics

  • Normal operating voltage: 210-320V (it cannot go above 380V)
  • Maximum current: 0.9-1.5A
  • Pulse duration (μs): 105-115 (.000115 second)
  • Pulse charge (μC): 84-125 (.000125 amp-second)
  • Pulse repetition rate: 29.7-30.8 pulses per second
  • Duration of charge: two days to several months (a function of “on time” usage)
  • Charge time: two hours
  • Battery: 3.7V lithium-ion battery
  • Temperature range for maximum operation: 14°F to 122°F