SERGEANT JAMES POST
P&SN presents its 26th annual report on the latest technical advances in police vehicles, components and aftermarket equipment.
Welcome to the P&SN Annual Transportation Issue in which you’ll find the latest police vehicle and equipment news, PLUS the results of the Michigan State Police (MSP) yearly pursuit vehicle evaluations.
Today, we find ourselves in a unique place in time for American law enforcement: critical officer shortages everywhere with few or no applicants; new police vehicle and parts shortages; a dismal economy handcuffed to a shocking crime wave; millions of illegals crossing our Southern border, seemingly unabated; illegal drugs creating a coast-to-coast tsunami of overdoses and deaths; and, now, the Israeli War which will further deplete department resources as personnel are assigned to crowd control and synagogue/mosque protection across America. Despite all of this, our Thin Blue Line continues to hold fast to protect what sanity, safety, civility, and dignity remain in our country.
It was within this environment that the MSP soldiered on to provide you with their annual evaluation of pursuit vehicles, the results of which follow.
First, it should be noted there were NO police motorcycle evaluations this year for a couple of reasons. First of all, the MSP disbanded their Motorcycle Unit in January of this year, due primarily to a number of their motorcycle troopers being killed in traffic accidents in recent years.
In addition, in September, BMW of North America issued a “stop sale” order of ALL motorcycles at BMW dealerships. The reason given was not safety-related, but emissions-related, while the company evaluates the material used in a component of their evaporation system. There has not been a recall and new and used bikes can still be purchased, just not from a BMW dealer.
Vehicles Provided and Tested
Every year, automakers are invited to provide vehicles for testing. These are not limited to America’s Big Three and other companies desiring to earn the coveted “Pursuit Vehicle” rating can submit vehicles (EV or ICE) which meet basic standards established by the MSP.
For the 2023 tests, Chevrolet, Dodge® and Ford® provided vehicles and, due to the issues which have continued to plague manufacturers since COVID (parts deliveries and shortages), several of the units tested are considered carryover units from the prior year, with minor changes and upgrades.
A total of 12 vehicles were submitted for the 2023 tests: seven SUV bodied, three pickup styles, and two electrics. Following first are the gas-powered (ICE) units.
Chevrolet provided two Tahoes (both with their 5.3L V-8), one in RWD and one in 4WD, while two 4WD Silverado trucks were also provided – a Z7X and a Z71.
Dodge brought two AWD Durangos, one with their 5.7L HEMI® V-8 and one 3.6L V-6. Conspicuously absent were the Charger Pursuits, currently the largest selling police sedan on the market. The reason Stellantis representatives gave was that the Chargers were no longer in production, much to the disappointment of the loyal Mopar® fans in attendance.
Ford rolled in with three of their popular PI Utilities, all in standard AWD – a 3.0L EcoBoost®, a Hybrid and a base 3.3L. They also provided a 4WD F-150® Police Responder® pickup powered by a 3.5L EcoBoost.
The two all-electric units (EVs) in AWD were tested, the Chevrolet Blazer EV and Ford’s Mustang Mach-E®.
The acceleration, top speed and braking tests were conducted on September 16 at the Chrysler Proving Grounds in Chelsea, MI, and the acceleration results follow, with braking tests last.
Acceleration/top speed tests are self-explanatory, but we usually start with a response to every gear head, lead foot cop’s first question: “What will it do?” – not “What kinda mileage does it get?” or “How does it ride?”. Top speeds are the primary interest of most drivers, but not the bosses, and cops want to know which cruiser was the fastest!
Okay, you’ve waited long enough…the fastest (ICE) pursuit vehicle for 2023 was the PI Utility 3.0 EcoBoost at 148 mph, while tied for second (at 136 mph) were the Hybrid and Base PI Utilities. Third place went to the HEMI Dodge Durango at 130 mph. The slowest top speeds recorded were set by the two Silverados at 112 mph each.
Acceleration is measured in seconds from a standing stop and recorded in ten mph increments, from 0-20 mph through 0-100 mph. For this column, we’ll report on the 0-60 and 0-100 results: 0-60 representing starting from stationary on an on-ramp or shoulder and reaching freeway speeds, while 0-100 is the time it takes to catch most speeders. Prepare yourself for some surprising results.
The top three vehicles in the 0-60 category were: The best at 5.69 seconds was the Ford F-150 Responder! Second at 5.81 seconds was the EcoBoost PI and third at 6.67 seconds was the Dodge HEMI Durango. The worst 0-60 time was set by the V-6 Durango at 8.25 seconds.
The quickest vehicle at 0-100 was also the amazing F-150, with a time of 14.40 seconds! Next was the EcoBoost PI at 15.13 seconds and third was the Hybrid PI at a flat 17 seconds. Slowest again was the V-6 Durango at 23.06 seconds, over 8.5 seconds slower than Ford’s Responder and we wonder if there may have been a mechanical issue as earlier it had recorded a respectable top speed of 120 mph.
A final category recorded in the acceleration category is the distance it takes to reach a particular speed and is recorded in miles. The first results we’ll look at are 100 mph and the shortest distance recorded was by the F-150 at 0.25 miles; second was the EcoBoost PI at 0.27 and third was the Hybrid PI at 0.30. The worst distance was set by the 3.6 Durango at 0.42 miles.
The final rating is the distance to reach top speed which was posted by the Z7X Silverado at 0.48 miles and second, the Z71 Silverado at 0.49. (It should be noted the lowest top speeds were recorded by the Silverados at 112 mph each, so it stands to reason it would take further distance to reach those speeds.) Third place went to the F-150 at 0.52, while the worst was the PI Base Utility at 2.09.
Brake Test Results
The same 12 vehicles were also subjected to exhaustive brake tests at the Chrysler Proving Grounds. Brake tests at Chelsea have always been both interesting and fun to watch and, occasionally, in the last 25 years, downright exciting – like the time one vehicle returned to the pits with the front rotors actually on fire! While speeds have gradually been increasing over the years, braking systems (and results) have shown the most dramatic improvement…from four-wheel drum brakes to front disc brakes to four-wheel disc brakes, to ABS, to larger and even drilled rotors, the Big Three have really gotten their collective act together as they realized stopping is as crucial as fast top speeds. Hey, why do you think drag racers have parachutes?
Brake tests are determined by the average distance of three 60-0 stops which gives a projected stopping distance, measured in feet.The vehicle with the best (shortest) projected stopping distance was the EcoBoost Utility at 129.40 feet; next was the RWD Tahoe at 130.40 feet and third place was the base Utility at 131.10 feet. The vehicle with the worst (longest) projected stopping distance was the Ford Responder at 159.65 feet; that’s over 30 feet further than the winning Utility. To put it into street terms, that’s over the width of three average city crosswalks (and a lot of pedestrians)!
A not too subtle reason for the brake tests is to remind us that, no matter how fast pursuit vehicles are, you have to stop them, too.
I’m reminded of a onetime purchase of 1967 Chevy Bel Airs my department made. They had the beloved 327, 4 bbl V-8s and this was their first year for front disc brakes, but they were rolling on bias tires. Imagine assigning these to cops who had been driving six-cylinder squads forever. Brother, these cars would scream and light the tires, but they couldn’t stop. Many times, I slid right past the location of a hot call and, usually, about half a city block past. And that was with both feet on the wide pedal!
The EV Cruisers
As mentioned in the introduction, two all-Electric Vehicles (EV) were tested, too, but we separated their results from the ICE vehicles because it’s like comparing apples to oranges. Their results follow.
The two tested were the AWD Chevrolet Blazer EV and the AWD Ford Mustang Mach-E and, folks, these are not your father’s Blazers or Mustangs. The original Blazer was introduced in 1969 and the Mustang in 1964 and the only identifying feature on these EVs is that they wear the same emblems worn by their predecessors.
Top Speed and Acceleration
Both vehicles performed well; in fact, they outperformed their fossil fuel competitors in several instances. Top speed for the Blazer was 130 mph (same as the HEMI Durango), while the Mustang was a bit slower at 124 mph (identical to the V-8 4WD Tahoe).
But, the differences become significant in the timed acceleration because of the instant torque of the electric engines. The Blazer’s 0-60 time of 5.17 seconds was faster than all the ICE vehicles and it was only beat by the Mustang at a screaming 4.07 seconds! The Blazer’s 0-100 time of 11.08 seconds blew away all the ICE cruisers and was only topped by the Mustang at 10.87 seconds. The electric’s distance to reach top speed was also amazing and beat out most of the competition. The Blazer hit 0.45 miles, the best of every vehicle tested, but the Mustang took it a bit further at 0.55 miles.
The brake tests placed the projected stopping distance of the Blazer at 135.20 feet, better than five of the 12 units tested or about in the middle of the pack. However, the Mustang not only bested the Blazer at 129.60 feet, it actually had the second-best braking performance of all the vehicles tested…only inches further than the first place EcoBoost Utility.
Comparing the two EV vehicles against the ten ICE vehicles seems like bad odds, but there are some valid results which can be gleaned from the 2023 MSP tests. In an effort to level the playing field, all vehicles were equipped the same and were tested “slick top” (without lightbars). This included the three pickups. Also, there was no mention, or comparison, of MSRPs which obviously is a major concern when shopping for replacement vehicles. Further comparisons, such as interior space, trunk capacity, height and weight, and much more, should be made by consumers while shopping.
That said, considering these are all performance tests, they can be helpful when making that final pick. For example, when selecting vehicles for congested cities with no freeways, braking is likely more important than top speed. For rural cities or counties, 4WD and AWD might be a major consideration, as well as the clearance difference between sedans, SUVs and pickups. Even a jurisdiction’s yearly weather can be a concern in the selection process.
The results show that the EVs did perform well against the competition and, in some cases, much better. The elephant in the room, of course, is money. The EVs are more expensive than their ICE counterparts and they require major expensive up-fitting of facilities for high-speed chargers. A significant factor also is the driving range of EVs, particularly for SP/HP and rural units and factors, such as temperatures and driving styles which can impact charge levels (range) and the possibility of leaving the operator stranded.
My suggestion is the same as it has been in several past columns…if you are genuinely concerned about the carbon footprint of your fleet, but lack the funds to go all-in with EVs, start with the Hybrid PI Utilities from Ford which now have several years’ operational data in numerous North American departments and in the MSP tests. PLUS, you don’t have to plug them in! If you are interested in my recommendation of the PI Utility Hybrid, I have some late breaking good news for you. While the civilian Hybrid Explorer has been discontinued, Ford announced on October 18 that they will continue to build the PI Hybrid through MY 2024. As far as 2025 goes, they have announced a total “refresh” for MY 2025. Disclaimer: Before you ask, I’ve never worked for Ford, or owned their stock or ever had a demo to drive; I just call ’em like I see ’em.
My selection criteria and recommendations have (and have always been) based on just two factors: 1) officer safety and 2) department budgets.
As we mentioned in the last section, there is not a lot of breaking cruiser news because of COVID and the continuing parts unavailability and Stellantis’ announcements of on again/off again production of North America’s best-selling LE sedan, the Dodge Charger. With everything going on, it’s no surprise several of the vehicles tested by MSP were basically carryover models. Following is the news we have discovered for your consumption.
The Blazer EV for civilians, introduced in 2022, has been overshadowed by the much awaited LE version EV which was launched as a 2024 model and revealed during the MSP tests. Civilian models of new vehicles (historically) are released prior to the LE versions. It’s just common sense, as the civilian models command higher prices than the stripped-down LE models. This is not necessarily a bad thing, as it gives engineers the opportunity to study the vehicle in real-world conditions as they tweak the design for the rigid requirements of police duty. The PPV (Police Pursuit Vehicle) Blazer EV was tested by MSP in September as seen in results listed above.
Highlights of the new Blazer include a 400 volt AWD system with a maximum output set at 498 hp and 531 pound-feet of torque. Boasting a 50/50 front to rear weight distribution for superior handling, it features a 105 kWh battery with an estimated range of 250 miles (on a full charge). Upgraded heavy-duty suspension, six piston Brembo™ front brake calipers (matched to 15.3 inch rotors), 20″ rims, Firestone Pursuit tires, and a set of underbody protective skid plates complete the rugged LE package.
The electrical architecture is designed for LE equipment upfit needs and standard features include remote start, remote keyless entry and a Passive Power Mode which allows exiting officers to activate (with a key fob), leaving the vehicle powered and unlocked, but protected and nondrivable.
The PPV 9C1 package also provides vinyl rear seating and heavy-duty vinyl flooring standard, while the Detective/Admin version (9PC) retains a civilian-style interior.
Despite their amazing performance across the range of all vehicles at the MSP tests, there is some bad news from the NHTSA, an investigation which involves some 196,723 2021-2022 vehicles with the 2.7L and 3.0L EcoBoost engines. This covers most of Ford’s lineup of Hybrid models (SUVs and pickups) and, although LE vehicles were not specifically mentioned, they certainly fall within the parameters of the investigation.
Although, not a recall, the investigation involves “catastrophic” engine failures caused by the fracturing of engine intake valves manufactured with a new alloy. Without warning, under normal driving conditions, vehicles may experience a loss of power negating a restart.
The investigation began with owner complaints and the only fix is an entire engine replacement. The investigation is continuing and the results will determine mutually by the NHTSA and Ford if a recall is warranted.
Tesla has unveiled their new purpose-built all-electric EV/LE package, branded (appropriately) the Model PD. It is built on their popular Model Y platform with LE-specific modifications.
Here are the basics for gear heads: horsepower – 384; acceleration – 0-60 mph in 4.8 seconds; top speed – 135 mph; drive – dual motor AWD.
Safety was a primary concern in the design of the Model PD. It utilizes the mega-casting technology of the Model Y, where two huge single castings for the front and rear underbody sections are connected by the new structural (liquid cooled) lithium-ion battery pack which also serves as a critical element of the body structure. This innovation reduces weight and greatly simplifies assembly.
Civilian Teslas have been tested and evaluated for a couple of years by scores of departments across America. The tests were highly detailed and informational and we’ve reported on them extensively as a service to departments considering Teslas, with the cautionary warning that they were not pursuit-rated.
Department findings in tests were both good and bad and covered everything from upfitting issues to operating costs, performance, officer safety, and comfort. The Tesla engineers have obviously taken these reports into consideration in their design and modifications of the Model Y for duty.
Michigan State Police
While we’re on the subject of the MSP, there is crime news which could impact all of you. They reported that, on September 6 (ten days before their annual tests), three of the four marked vehicles parked at their Sault Ste. Marie Post were torched and they were a total loss. An investigation was launched and, supported by surveillance cameras, a suspect was developed. Upon contact, the suspect fired shots at arresting officers and they returned fire, injuring the arsonist, who was charged with more than ten felonies.
This incident, and scores of others which are increasing at an alarming rate across the country, point out the need to secure police facilities and vehicles at all times. Front lobby shootouts have happened; vehicles have been damaged or stolen, and gear has been removed; and officers have been assaulted.
NEW EQUIPMENT NEWS
LE equipment manufacturers are suffering now due to two factors. First, they are still feeling the impact of new and replacement parts and raw material shortages due to COVID, along with employee shortages due to those who never returned to work and the economy. Second, the shortage of new (and even used) cruisers has impacted their sales, resulting in unsold merchandise filling their warehouses.
Despite the industry-wide doom and gloom, equipment suppliers have continued to create, innovate and build new designs and retool existing merchandise with an eye towards making it more universally adaptive.
We have rounded up some new products for your review and they follow by company, listed in alphabetical order.
Brother Mobile Solutions
Brother recently introduced the RuggedJet 4200 Mobile Printer with an industry leading battery life at the fastest speeds of 5ips and it features an active docking station with one-touch pairing. It was designed and built based on real feedback from law enforcement. The heavy-duty, compact mobile printer is built to save officers time doing reports and citations, freeing them up to protect and serve.
Code 3 has introduced PRMAMP, their new Programable Voice Amplifier which provides first responders with up to five programmed, commonly used or critical messages, such as “Tornado (or other) weather warnings”; “Crime scene, do not enter”; or “Accident ahead, turn around.” The messages are fully customizable for specific vehicles or department-wide standards.
The PRMAMP amplifier can be used with (or without) a siren and supports dual speaker outputs, or can be mounted to alternate between siren tones and amplified messages.
This system would have been a cop’s best friend where I spent my first 25 years in LE. We were smack-dab in the middle of Tornado Alley and, upon receiving a tornado warning, department policy required us to drive every block in our beat, broadcasting “Tornado warning, take cover” over the siren speaker.
The company which gave us emergency lighting with such memorable names as “Fireball®,” “Visabar,” “JetSonic,” and “Vector” has been at it again; their innovative SUV MicroPulse® Ultra D-Pillar Lighting System is an amazing emergency lighting product which really protects an SUV’s “six.” I’ve installed a lot of lightbars over the years, but this one looks like the simplest of them all. Providing additional lighting on the rear of the popular SUV cruisers, it mounts with 3M™ VHB™ tape to the D-Pillar and each kit is exclusive to the make and model. Each kit consists of six MPS6U tri-color MicroPulse Ultra light heads containing high output LEDs. The fully encapsulated housing provides a barrier against dust, moisture and water and offers fully customizable flash patterns – and even auxiliary signals such as brake, reverse and turn signal.
Gamber-Johnson has partnered with leading LE equipment manufacturers to provide customers a comprehensive, convenient ordering solution utilizing a single SKU. The Single SKU Police Car Bundle eliminates the need for multiple orders and speeds up delivery and upfit time. There are financing options as well.
Gamber-Johnson has also introduced new and improved prisoner containment systems for the 2020+ Ford PI Utilities. Their Single Cell Partition uses OEM seats and confines the detainee to 1/3 of the second row seating, thus allowing the remaining 2/3 to be used for equipment storage. It features solid steel construction, scratch-resistant polycarbonate windows and offers a simple no-drill installation.
Their Passenger Partition completes a fully secure prisoner containment system with a barrier between the second seat and the rear cargo area. It features a sliding poly window with mesh covering which provides abundant airflow for the bad guys and optimal visibility for the operator, while deterring escape attempts out the rear of the PI. This is a far cry from the ventilation prisoners received in the Chevy panel paddy wagon I drove many decades ago…two screen covered 4″ x 12″ holes cut into the metal side walls!
Havis’ newest product is the VSX Console for the 2021-2023 Chevy Tahoe, a premium vehicle-specific unit to meet the needs of law enforcement, providing a secure and ergonomic platform for mounting a range of essential communications and equipment. It fits seamlessly into the Tahoe, ensuring a clean and professional appearance. The console provides ample storage with lockable top and side compartments.
Jotto Desk, a brand line of Assembled Products Corporation, and a foremost manufacturer of LE vehicle equipment, has been meeting the needs of departments and upfitters for some time and has celebrated 30 years of innovative products and satisfied customers this year. They offer consoles, partitions, computer stands, and secure weapon mounts and boast the best lead times in the industry.
The price of the plethora of components installed in a LE vehicle, plus electronic equipment and weapons, represents a significant investment in every cruiser, while the safety of officers and citizens alike is a primary concern as well. With these needs in mind, Jotto created the Defend IR Security System and they were pleased to announce in September that they were awarded a US patent for the system which utilizes the vehicle’s light/siren controller already in most vehicles. Their PIR sensor cloaks the vehicle interior with protection superior to factory OEM alarms and provides security for those vehicles which have no alarms whatsoever.
When an unauthorized person (without a key or fob) enters the cruiser passenger compartment, Defend IR is activated and, within ten seconds, alerts the controller which turns on the patrol vehicle’s lights and siren, protecting weapon(s) and equipment in the unit while the car is parked on calls for service, at stations, or at officers’ homes.
Printek has launched the next generation of mobile printers, the FP641 FieldPro Printer, which provides four inch wide print solutions for vehicle and mobile applications. It boasts fast print speeds of six inches per second with an easy to see slanted LCD display, large function buttons, and an easy to open center-loading paper compartment. It includes a compact, rugged carrying case with wide shoulder straps which will withstand a six foot drop.
Pro-gard builds storage systems and, in August, they revealed a frequently requested item from customers – an under-seat storage box for the Ford F-150 Responder pickup. They put the engineers to work and the result is their Rear Under-Seat Solution for the Responder and Super Duty® Crew Cabs.
Utilizing the OEM mounts, the steel, seamless, hole-free box offers fast installation. It features two compartments, a movable divider, locking latches, and a rubber mat-lined floor.
Pro-gard’s Cargo Storage Floor for the 2021+ Chevy Tahoe is a two-compartment storage system which expands the cargo area. It mounts directly to the vehicle’s floor using OEM mounting points and works with or without their Cargo Barrier. Using a mix of 11- and 14-gauge powder-coated steel, it provides security for weapons and gear, communications and electronics.
An ideal partner for the Storage Floor is Pro-gard’s newest addition, Cargo Storage Drawers, available in large and small sizes, with optional locking choices. They are stackable, rubber mat-lined and offer a hassle-free, no-drill, quick installation utilizing OEM holes.
Setina Manufacturing Co., Inc.
Setina now has a top-notch solution available for the new Chevrolet Blazer EV. Setina’s multitiered Cargo Box provides law enforcement with a first-rate solution for trunk placement of supporting equipment. Crafted from robust yet lightweight aluminum, this storage solution ensures easy and swift installation without the need for drilling. It enables users to optimize vehicle storage for firearms, cargo and communication gear. The design features modularity and various advanced locking choices, such as RFID, Key Pad, Combi Lock, or Handle Key Lock. Setina offers the Rear Cargo Storage Box in diverse tiers and setups, catering to the specific requirements of every department.
Additionally, as reported earlier this year, Setina Manufacturing marked its 60th anniversary. Founded by John Setina in 1963, the company continues to be a family-run business, now led by John’s children, Terry and Judy, who have been steering the company for more than 30 years.
SnapSafe, a Hornady Company, recently introduced Snap Safe Trunk Safe II which offers police fleets a storage solution for a variety of gear, firearms and ammo, equipment, radios, documents, and more, with an unprecedented level of security. Constructed with a 13-gauge steel exterior, a pry-resistant six-gauge door with eight interior locking lugs and a digital lock. In case of a power failure, a barrel key backup guarantees immediate access.
The safe includes a three foot cable, allowing the user to anchor it to a solid object, and integrated handles to assist with effortless transport or transfer to another vehicle. Additionally, four predrilled holes on the bottom panel offer the option of mounting the safe in a permanent location.
Trunk Safe II measures 42″ W x 7″ H x 13″ D and the empty weight is 69 pounds.
SoundOff is a longtime provider of vehicle lighting, control systems and electronic warning solutions. Earlier this year, they announced their new TM100 Traffic Controller, a comprehensive, budget friendly solution for traffic advising and warning. Its features include a weatherproof and vibration-resistant light emitting design which provides clarity even in sunlight; plug-n-play 25′ cable for quick and simple installation; solid aluminum extrusion; backlit controller buttons; and it comes available in single or dual color models with 20 flash patterns.
A Final Tribute
Veto Enterprises of Sycamore, IL, a well-known and highly respected police cruiser and equipment sales dealer and upfitters, have announced they will close their doors at the end of this year, marking 54 years of service to the police community, with customers stretching from the Midwest to the Rockies. Bob Veto, the founder and President, started with a small family run LE equipment sales company in his home in Illinois in 1969 and, as his reputation and sales blossomed, he opened a brick and mortar dealership at the current location in 1987. Bob Veto is a jovial man and a loyal friend to everyone he has met in the profession. His business is staffed by his very capable children, making it a true family affair.
Bob first attended the Michigan State Police Vehicle Evaluations in 1978 and he has been a fixture ever since. After a couple of years, Bob started bringing along friends, fleet representatives and customers. As his entourage grew every year, MSP staff took notice and, eventually, Bob worked with MSP to open their tests to folks in the police fleet field, with attendance in the hundreds.
On his own, Bob started bringing a radar gun to “shoot” the competitors from his spot at trackside. Soon, attendees noticed and huddled around Bob to get “instant” results because, prior to then, results were written on a chalk board by MSP staff.
In 1993, Bob began cohosting the MSP opening banquet on the first night of tests; just another sign of his generosity. In fact, this year the MSP awarded Bob with a well-deserved plaque acknowledging his assistance for the last 31 years!
Bob is a bona fide expert on police cars and not just a statistician; he’s got the grease under his nails to prove he knows whereof he speaks. He never hesitates to share his knowledge with anyone who might ask and, believe me, your author has asked a lot!
A little known fact about Veto Enterprises is that they have provided police cars to the majority of cop TV shows and movies filmed in Chicago, including most of the Batman films, “Chicago P.D.,” “Chicago Fire,” and “The Chicago Code.” Besides cruisers and civilian cars, he even converted armored cars into SWAT vans.
It’s been a real honor knowing Bob for the last 30+ years and calling him a friend. On behalf of P&SN, I wish him well in his next adventure and, whatever it is, you can bet he’ll still be at the wheel of a cruiser!
Sergeant James Post has 27 years of experience in city, county and federal law enforcement and has enjoyed sharing his wit, wisdom and police car knowledge with readers here on the pages of P&SN for the last 25+ years. He can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org.